1932.35.6 also allocated number 1938.34.420

Bone voice disguiser with incised chevron designs. Rubber head with modelled features, cowrie shell eyes and human hair and abrus seed decoration.

Place details: AFRICA. Nigeria. Benue Abinsi. Cultural Group: Tiv Local Name: IMBORIVUNGU Materials: Animal Bone / Rubber Plant / Cowrie Shell / Abrus Precatorius Seed Plant / Human Hair / ?. Processes: Carved / Covered / Decorated / Incised / ?. Dimensions: L = 205 mm Field Collector: ?Abinsi Native Administration When Collected: By 1932 Other Owners: Abinsi Native Administration PRM Source: Abinsi Native Administration Acquired: Donated August 1932 ?Bequeathed 1939 Other Numbers: Balfour number 420 PRM Image: A5 F10 21 Collections Digital Reference Photo 19/09/2012

KEYWORD: Musical Instrument / Figure / Religious Object / Voice Disguiser / CLASS: Music / Figure / Religion / ?.MUSIC CLASS: 2. MUSIC NAME: Voice disguiser.

Accession Book Entry (IX 80) - 'THE ABINSI NATIVE ADMINISTRATION, Makurdi, Benue Province, N. NIGERIA. Aug. Objects confiscated from the TIV (MUNSHI) of ABINSI district, BENUE PROVINCE, N. NIGERIA, in connection with a case of the practice of human sacrifice, viz: - [One of] 8 Imborivungu, voice-disguisers of bone, with lateral voice hole and vibrating membrane, mostly missing) over one end; the other end decorated with a modelled human head, variously embellished with abrus seeds, cowries, beads, etc. Connected with ancestral cult.'

Additional Accession Book Entry - [Green pencil tick followed by] 'Balfour 4, nos. 415-22'

Additional Accession Book Entry - 'these are fully described on cards'

Accession book entry [Balfour 4] - Voice disguiser, imborivungu, of bone with incised geometrical pattern. Pottery Modelled rubber head covered with pubic hair; eyes represented by cowries; Abrus precatorius seeds surrounding face and representing a hair-crest, also round lower end of bone imbedded in clay. Length, c. 8 inches. Membrane in place. Same provenance ["TIV (MUNSHI) tribe, ABINSI DIST., BENUE PROV., N. NIGERIA"]. Pres. by Abinsi Native Administration, 1932.

Additional Accession Book Entries [all in different hands] - IX. 80 = 415-422. [Added] 415-422 d.d. The Abinsi Native Administration, 1932. [Added] L = 20.2 cm. [Added in green] Don. IX p. 80.

Card Catalogue Entry - N. NIGERIA, BENUE PROVINCE, ABINSI DISTRICT, TIV TRIBE Voice disguiser, imborivungu, of bone with incised chevron design; heads of rubber, with modelled features, eyes of cowry shells, and human hair stuck on, with abrus seeds to represent crest, and uncircling face. d.d. The Abinsi Native Administration, 1932.

Pitt Rivers Museum label - Bone imborivungu, used in ancestor cult. TIV (MUNSHI), ABINSI dist., BENUE PROV., N. NIGERIA [written on other side] Pres. by the Abinsi Native Administration, 1932. H. Balfour, 1939. No. 420. 1932.35.6 [AR 15/6/2007]

Related Documents File - Letter to Balfour from R. F. P Orine [?sic], dated 24 August 1932: 'The President [?Resident] Benue Province, Nigeria, asked me to take home a case of Tiv (Munshi) cult objects for the Pitt Rivers Museum. ...' [MOB 3/12/2001]